Mesopotamian mythology is one of the world’s oldest and most fascinating mythological traditions. Originating in the lands between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, this mythology flourished in the Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian civilizations, leaving a lasting legacy in the history and culture of ancient Mesopotamia. Mesopotamian mythology boasts a pantheon of gods and goddesses embodying various aspects of nature, society, and everyday life. Some of the most influential Mesopotamian gods include:

  • Anu (An): The god of the sky and the king of the gods in most Mesopotamian traditions.
  • Enlil: The god of wind, storms, and the earth. He was one of the supreme deities and played a fundamental role in Sumerian mythology.
  • Marduk: The god of Babylon and the patron god of the city of Babylon. Marduk became the principal god of the Babylonian pantheon and was worshiped as a creator and conqueror god.
  • Ishtar (Inanna): The goddess of love, fertility, and war. Ishtar was a powerful figure with numerous myths and attributes attributed to her.

One of the most important literary works of Mesopotamian mythology is the «Enûma Elish», the epic of creation. This tale narrates the creation of the world through the struggle among the gods, led by Marduk, who ultimately defeats the primordial monster Tiamat and creates the cosmos from her body. The «Enûma Elish» establishes the supremacy of Marduk and his city, Babylon, as the center of the world.

Another notable literary work is the «Epic of Gilgamesh», one of the oldest known epics. It narrates the adventures of King Gilgamesh, who seeks immortality and faces mythological and mystical challenges in his quest. The poem addresses themes of life, death, and the search for meaning in a world full of uncertainty.

The ancient Mesopotamians practiced a variety of religious rituals to honor their gods, ensure prosperity, and protect against evil. These rituals included offerings, invocations, sacrifices, and religious festivals carried out in temples and ziggurats, the imposing religious structures of the time.